Dairy and cardiovascular disease

  1. Alexander DD, Bylsma LC, Vargas AJ et al. (2016) Dairy consumption and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brit J Nutr 115:737-750.
  2. Qin LQ, Xu JY, Han SF et al. (2015) Dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: an updated meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 24(1):90-100.
  3. Soedamah-Muthu SS,Verberne LDM, Ding EL, Engberink MF, Geleijnse JM. (2012)  Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension : A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies. Hypertension, published online September 17, 2012.
  4. Ralston RA, Lee JH, Truby H, Palermo CE, Walker KZ. (2012) A systematic review and metaanalysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods. Journal of Human Hypertension 26, 3–13.
  5. Aune D, Norat T, Romundstad P, Vatten LJ. (2013) Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr;98:1066–83.
  6. Kalergis M, Yinko SSLL, Nedelcu R. (2013) Dairy Products and prevention of type 2 diabetes implications for research and practice. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 23 July 2013 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00090.
  7. Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Gabriel Masset, Lisa Verberne, Johanna M. Geleijnse and Eric J. Brunner. (2012) Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes,CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study. Br J Nutr 2012. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001845.
  8. Grantham N, Magliano DJ, Hodge A, Jowett J, Meikle P, Shaw JE. (2012) The association between dairy food intake and the incidence of diabetes in Australia: the Australian Diabetes Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Public Health Nutrition. 2012. doi:10.1017/S1368980012001310.
  9. Tong X, Dong J-Y, Wu Z-W, Li W and Qin L-Q. (2011) Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65:1027-31.
  10. Louie JC, Flood VM, Hector DJ, Rangan AM, Gill TP. (2011) Dairy consumption and overweight and obesity: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev 2011;12:e582–92.
  11. Kratz M, Baars T, Guyenet S (2013) The relationship between high-fat dairy consumption and obesity, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease. Eur J Nutr 52(1):1-24.
  12. Elwood PC , Pickering JE, Givens DI, Gallacher JE (2010) The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: an overview of the evidence. Lipids 45, 925-39.
  13. Pimpin L, Wu JHY, Haskelberg H et al. (2016) Is butter back? A systematic review and meta-analysis of butter consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and total mortality. PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158118.
  14. Jakobsen MU, O'Reilly EJ, Heitmann BL et al. (2009) Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 89:1425-1432.
  15. Hooper L, Martin N, Abdelhamid A, Davey Smith G (2015) Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 6. Art. No.:CD011737.
  16. Hu F B (2010). Are refined carbohydrates worse than saturated fat? Am J Clin Nutr 91(6):1541-1542.
  17. Rautiainen S, Wang L, Lee IM et al. (2016) Dairy consumption in association with weight change and risk of becoming overweight or obese in middle-aged and older women: a prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr doi: 10.3925/ajcn.115.118406.
  18. Yakoob MY, Shi P, Willett WC et al. (2016) Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident diabetes mellitus among US men and women in two large prospective cohorts. Circulation, doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.115.018410. 


Dairy, fat and body weight

  1. FAO (2010) Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an Expert Consultation, 10-14 November 2008 in Geneva. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  2. Louie JC, Flood VM, Hector DJ, Rangan AM, Gill TP. (2011) Dairy consumption and overweight and obesity: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Obes Rev 2011;12:e582–92.
  3. Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M, Esmaillzadeh A. (2012) Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes (Lond) 2012; Jan 17 (Epub ahead of print; DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2011.269).
  4. Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. (2012) Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012. doi: o 10.3945/ajcn.112.037119
  5. Booth AO, Huggins CE, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Nowson CA (2015) Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Brit J Nutr 114:1013-1025.
  6. Gonzalez JT, Rumbold PLS, Stevenson EJ. (2012) Effect of calcium intake on fat oxidation in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Obesity Reviews doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01013.x
  7. Lorenzen JK, Astrup A.(2011) Dairy calcium intake modifies responsiveness of fat metabolism and blood lipids to a high-fat diet. Br J Nutr 31:1–10.
  8. Christensen R, Lorenzen JK, Svith CR, Bartels EM, Melanson EL, Saris WH, Tremblay A, Astrup A. (2009) Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev10:475– 86.
  9. Tremblay A, Gilbert JA. (2011) Human obesity: is insufficient calcium/dairy intake part of the problem? J Am Coll Nutr. Oct;30(5 Suppl 1):449S-53S.
  10. Josse, A. R., Atkinson, S. A., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2011). Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. The Journal of Nutrition, 141(9), 1626–34.
  11. Josse, A. R., Tang, J. E., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Phillips, S. M. (2010). Body composition and strength changes in women with milk and resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(6), 1122–30.


Dairy, calcium and bone health

  1. Weaver CM (2000) The growing years and prevention of osteoporosis later in life. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 59:303-306.
  2. International Osteoporosis Foundation 2001, Invest in your bones, viewed 21.12.16
  3. Black R et al. (2002) Children who avoid drinking cow milk have low dietary calcium intakes and poor bone health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 76:675-680.
  4. Goulding A, Rockell JEP, Black RE , Grant AM, Jones IE , Williams SM (2004). Children who avoid drinking cow’s milk are at increased risk for prepubertal bone fractures. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104(2): 250-253   DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2003.11.008
  5. Lu L, Xun P, Wan Y et al. (2016) Long-term association between dairy consumption and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.226.
  6. Calcium in Human Health 2006 Editors: Weaver C., Heaney R.(chapter 9) ISBN: 978-1-58829-452-4 (Print)  978-1-59259-961-5 (Online)
  7. Heaney (2013).  Dairy Intake, Dietary Adequacy, and Lactose Intolerance.  Adv. Nutr. 4: 151-156.
  8. Weaver (2014). Milk Consumption and Bone Health.  JAMA Pediatr. 168(1): 12 – 13.
  9. Theintz et al (1992). Longitudinal monitoring of bone mass accumulation in healthy adolescents: evidence for a marked reduction after 16 years of age at the levels of lumbar spine and femoral neck in female subjects. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab 75: 1060-1065
  10. Heaney et al (1989). Meal effects on calcium absorption. AJCN 49: 372-6.
  11. Heaney et al (1990). Absorbability of calcium sources: The limited role of solubility. Calcif Tissue Int 46: 300-304.
  12. Moschonis & Manios (2006). Skeletal site-dependent response of BMD and quantitative ultrasound parameters following a 12-month dietary intervention using dairy products fortified with calcium and vitamin D: the postmenopausal health study. BJN 96: 1140-1148.
  13. Napoli et al (2007). Effects of dietary calcium compared with calcium supplements on estrogen metabolism and bone mineral density. AJCN 85 (5): 1428-1433
  14. University of Auckland Faculty of Medical and Health Science (2007). The Burden of Osteoporosis in New Zealand 2007-2020, viewed 21.12.16.
  15. New Zealand Nutrition Foundation (2014). Calcium, viewed 21.12.16


Dairy and exercise

  1. Roy BD (2008). Milk: the new sports drink? A review. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 5(15). doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-15
  2. Rutherfurd, S. M., Fanning, A. C., Miller, B. J., & Moughan, P. J. (2015). Protein digestibility-corrected amino Acid scores and digestible indispensable amino Acid scores differentially describe protein quality in growing male rats. The Journal of Nutrition, 145(2), 372–9.
  3. Devries, M. C., & Phillips, S. M. (2015). Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. Journal of Food Science, 80 Suppl 1, A8–A15.
  4. Mitchell, C. J., Mcgregor, R. A., Souza, R. F. D., Thorstensen, E. B., Markworth, J. F., Fanning, A. C., … Cameron-smith, D. (2015). Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men. Nutrients, 7(10), 8685–8699.
  5. Burke L (2000) Nutrition for recovery after competition and training. In Clinical Sports Nutrition (L Burke & V Deakin, eds), pp. 396-427. McGraw-Hill, Roseville.
  6. Phillips, S. M., & Van Loon, L. J. C. C. (2011). Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 Suppl 1(December), S29-38.
  7. Shirreffs, S. M., Watson, P., & Maughan, R. J. (2007). Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink. The British Journal of Nutrition, 98(1), 173–80.
  8. Maughan RJ et al. 2016. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: development of a beverage hydration index. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103:717-723.
  9. Cermak, N. M., Res, P. T., de Groot, L. C. P. G. M., Saris, W. H. M., & van Loon, L. J. C. (2012). Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(6), 1454–64.
  10. Décombaz, J., Jentjens, R., Ith, M., Scheurer, E., Buehler, T., Jeukendrup, A., & Boesch, C. (2011). Fructose and galactose enhance postexercise human liver glycogen synthesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(10), 1964–1971.
  11. Wilkinson, S. B., Tarnopolsky, M. A., Macdonald, M. J., Macdonald, J. R., Armstrong, D., & Phillips, S. M. (2007). Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(4), 1031–40.
  12. Hartman, J. W., Tang, J. E., Wilkinson, S. B., Tarnopolsky, M. a, Lawrence, R. L., Fullerton, A. V, & Phillips, S. M. (2007). Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(2), 373–81.
  13. Dodd, K. M., & Tee, A. R. (2012). Leucine and mTORC1: a complex relationship. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 302(11), E1329-42.
  14. Drummond, M. J., & Rasmussen, B. B. (2008). Leucine-enriched nutrients and the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin signalling and human skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 11(3), 222–226.
  15. Boirie, Y., Dangin, M., Gachon, P., Vasson, M. P., Maubois, J. L., & Beaufrère, B. (1997). Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94(26), 14930–5.
  16. Phillips, S. M., Tang, J. E., & Moore, D. R. (2009). The role of milk- and soy-based protein in support of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein accretion in young and elderly persons. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28(4), 343–54.
  17. High Performance  Sport New Zealand (2016). 8 top reasons athletes include milk in their day, viewed 21.12.16
  18. Australian Sports Commission (2009). Recovery Nutrition, viewed 21.12.16
  19. Cockburn E, Stevenson E, Hayes PR, Robson-Ansley P, Howatson G (2010) Effect of milk-based carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 35(3):270-277. doi: 10.1139/H10-017.
  20. Phillips SM, Van Loon LJ (2011).  Dietary protein for athletes: From requirements to optimum adaptation. Journal of Sports Sciences, Suppl 1:S29-38. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.619204.